natura - the term refers to the surface of tiles which, after firing, are not subject to additional mechanical treatment; tiles with a natural surface also include textured tiles.
poler - polished surface tiles have undergone complete surface treatment through the grinding of the surface layer, which is made smooth and glossy; unglazed polished gres tiles have their internal pores exposed and require additional impregnation; glazed polished gres tiles do not require additional impregnation because their surface layer is completely vitrified – it does not have internal pores.
lappato - tiles where the surface is partially processed by grinding any protruding elements (usually a glass derivative or structural elements); this gives the tile a partial gloss effect, its surface is made smooth but still has good anti-slip properties; lappato tiles, like all glazed tiles, do not require impregnation.
struktura - this term refers to the surface of tiles which, after the firing process, are not subject to additional mechanical processing, and the uneven face of the tile is formed during the pressing process using a texture press; textured tiles often imitate the texture of the surface of, e.g. natural stone or its symmetrical pattern, which ensures the highest slip resistance class; the use of the texture has a particular effect on increasing the slip resistance properties according to DIN 51097 (the so-called barefoot slip test), in which the test is carried out on a wet surface and the water entering the grooves in the texture does not form an even film on its surface, which significantly improves this parameter and allows the use of these tiles in more demanding places, e.g. wet surfaces next to swimming pools.
interior, exterior, kitchen, bathroom, sitting room, hall, stairs, balcony and terrace, elevations, public facilities, commercial facilities, swimming pool
wide variety of patterns and tonalities
tiles made from gres mass, where an additional decorative effect is achieved by applying finishing surfaces, such as printing or glazing on the face of the tile; these can be applied on both full-body coloured or standard tiles.
The body of full-coloured tiles has a similar colour as their face, which gives the effect of a homogeneous product; both unglazed and glazed tiles can be full-body coloured; as a result, the aesthetics of the tiles remain intact even during their intensive use – a possible surface defect is not as visible as in the case of standard production technology; additionally, the fitting of full-body coloured tiles edge-to-edge gives a better visual effect.
is a process of mechanical edge processing of tiles by grinding them to the required dimensions; rectified tiles can be laid without fear of dimensional discrepancies; maximum dimensional discrepancies between rectified tiles are limited to tenths of a millimetre.
physical resistance of tiles to multiple temperature changes (freezing and thawing); this feature makes it possible to use the tiles outside or in places where the temperature periodically drops below 0⁰C; this property is strongly linked to water absorption.
R 11, A+B+C
a property of a surface describing its ability to prevent slippage; one of the selected parameters is usually used to express this property:
slip resistance class according to DIN 51130 – R9, R10, R11, R12, R13
slip resistance class according to DIN 51097 – A, A+B, A+B+C
Coefficient of friction
the testing of this parameter is subjective and the result most often cannot be replicated; however, even with identical measuring conditions, it may be burdened with error; when choosing tiles, we should be guided by our individual perception of this parameter, and we should also consider the target location of the tiles; it should also be remembered that tiles with a higher coefficient of friction will be more difficult to keep clean.
(PEI) – this parameter applies only to glazed tiles and describes the abrasion resistance of the tile surface during use; the test consists in abrasive wear of the tile surface with rotating abrasive elements and then visual evaluation; depending on the number of rotations at which a visible change appears on the tile surface, an appropriate abrasion resistance class is assigned to the tile; the higher the number of rotations at which the change is visible, the higher the abrasion resistance – the better performance of the tile and a wider possibility of using the tile in places exposed to more intensive use.
Deep abrasion resistance:
~ 130 mm3
Deep abrasion resistance
this parameter applies only to unglazed tiles and describes the abrasion resistance of the tile surface during use; the test consists in abrasive wear of the tile surface in compliance with the conditions strictly defined in the standard and then evaluation of the volume loss of the tile; in the case of this parameter, the lower the result, the better resistance to abrasion – and better performance of the tile and a wider possibility of using the tile in places exposed to more intensive use, such a traffic routes.